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Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, some of which produce the "high" which may be experienced from consuming marijuana. Primary psychoactive effects include a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, euphoria from its main psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol.

There are 483 identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in the cannabis plant, Non-drug plants produce relatively low levels of THC and high levels of CBD, while drug plants produce high levels of THC and low levels of CBD. Secondary psychoactive effects, such as a facility for philosophical thinking, introspection and metacognition have been reported among cases of anxiety and paranoia.

Its use as a mind-altering drug has been documented by archaeological finds in prehistoric societies in Eurasia and Africa. 440 BCE) Histories records, "The Scythians, as I said, take some of this hemp-seed [presumably, flowers], and, creeping under the felt coverings, throw it upon the red-hot stones; immediately it smokes, and gives out such a vapour as no Grecian vapour-bath can exceed; the Scyths, delighted, shout for joy." Classical Greeks and Romans were using cannabis, while in the Middle East, use spread throughout the Islamic empire to North Africa. Various forms of the drug cannabis exist, including extracts such as hashish and hash oil Medical cannabis (or medical marijuana) refers to the use of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids, to treat disease or improve symptoms.

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When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial (F Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries. Finally, the tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug cannabis, can include an increase in heart rate and hunger, believed to be caused by 11-OH-THC, a psychoactive metabolite of THC produced in the liver.

This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species. Normal cognition is restored after approximately three hours for larger doses via a smoking pipe, bong or vaporizer.

Linnaeus was familiar with European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time. Additional Cannabis species were proposed in the 19th century, including strains from China and Vietnam (Indo-China) assigned the names Cannabis chinensis Delile, and Cannabis gigantea Delile ex Vilmorin. ruderalis Janisch, and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch, as alternative names. kafiristanica Vav., and ruderal populations in Europe to C. However, hemp can refer to any industrial or foodstuff product that is not intended for use as a drug.

In 1785, noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis, which he named Cannabis indica Lam. However, many taxonomists found these putative species difficult to distinguish. In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. Many countries regulate limits for psychoactive compound (THC) concentrations in products labeled as hemp.

At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. Schultes and coworkers also conducted taxonomic studies of Cannabis in the 1970s, and concluded that stable morphological differences exist that support recognition of at least three species, C. indica is shorter, conical in shape, and has relatively wide leaflets, and C.

Last modified 02-Jul-2017 21:48